Lifetime Physical Fitness and Wellness: A Personalized Program

Dr. Werner W.K. Hoeger Professor Emeritus in the Department of Kinesiology at Boise State University, and fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and the Research Consortium of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. The 2004 recipient of the Presidential Award for Research and Scholarship in the College of Education at Boise State University, Dr. Hoeger continues to research and lecture on exercise physiology, physical fitness, and wellness. In addition to PRINCIPLES AND LABS FOR PHYSICAL FITNESS, Dr. Hoeger has published several Cengage Learning texts, including Fitness and Wellness, Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness, Lifetime Physical Fitness and Wellness, Wellness: Guidelines for a Healthy Lifestyle, and Water Aerobics for Fitness and Wellness (with Terry-Ann Spitzer Gibson). Dr. Hoeger is a former luge runner and Winter Olympian, and renowned fitness and wellness innovator. He developed many popular fitness assessment tools in use today, such as the modified sit and reach, total body rotation, shoulder rotation, muscular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and soda pop coordination tests.

Sharon A. Hoeger is Vice President of Fitness & Wellness, Inc. in Boise, Idaho and holds a bachelor’s degree in computer science from Brigham Young University. As co-author of PRINCIPLES AND LABS FOR PHYSICAL FITNESS, 10th Edition and four other Cengage texts, Ms. Hoeger is responsible for researching the most current scientific information for each revision, as well as developing the interactive software that accompanies all of the Hoeger fitness and wellness textbooks–innovations that have set the standard for fitness and wellness software today. The Hoeger husband-and-wife team has been jogging and strength training together for more than 35 years!

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Fitness For Life — 6th edition w/ Web Resources

Fitness for Life, Sixth Edition, is the award-winning text that continues to set the standard for teaching personal fitness (fitness education) at the high school level. It will help students become physically literate individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to enjoy a lifetime of healthful physical activity. This classic, evidence-based book will guide students in becoming informed consumers on matters related to lifelong physical activity and fitness, taking responsibility for setting individualized goals, and making their own plans for active living. To accomplish this overarching goal, they learn a variety of self-management skills, including self assessment. The program is based on established educational theory as outlined in the online teacher’s guide.

Fitness for Life, Sixth Edition, helps students in these ways:
* Become physically literate individuals as defined by SHAPE America.
* Meet the national, state, and local grade-level standards and outcomes developed by SHAPE America for physical education and fitness education.
* Meet college and career readiness standards by learning and using critical thinking, decision making, and problem-solving skills.
* Meet national physical activity guidelines of the USDHHS, exercise prescription guidelines of ACSM, and health goals of Healthy People 2020.
* Use the HELP philosophy of promoting health for everyone with an emphasis on lifetime activity and healthy lifestyles designed to meet personal needs.
* Use the Stairway to Lifetime Fitness concept, created by author Chuck Corbin, to encourage higher-order learning (move from dependence to independence).
* Use the Physical Activity Pyramid, created by the authors, to help students understand the FITT formula and benefits of the major types of physical activities.
* Become informed consumers on matters related to lifelong physical activity and fitness and other healthy lifestyles (e.g., good nutrition and stress management).
* Learn self-management skills that lead to adopting healthy lifestyles.
* Perform self-assessments, including all tests in the Fitnessgram battery and the Presidential Youth Fitness Program.
* Take personal responsibility for setting individualized goals and personal program planning.
* Develop a love for lifetime fitness activities.
* Benefit from the expertise of internationally renowned authors and educators Charles B. ‘Chuck’ Corbin and Guy C. Le Masurier and contributing author and educator Karen McConnell.

Through Fitness for Life, Sixth Edition, students will be able to do the following:
* Assess their own fitness and other health and wellness factors to determine personal needs and assess progress resulting from healthy lifestyle planning
* Use Taking Charge and Self-Management features to learn self-management skills (e.g., goals setting, self-monitoring, self-planning) for adopting healthy lifestyles.
* Learn key concepts and principles, higher-order information, and critical thinking skills that provide the basis for sound decision making and personal planning.
* Do reading and writing assignments as well as calculations that foster college and career readiness.
* Try out activities that are supported by lesson plans offered in the teacher web resources and that can help students be fit and active throughout their lives.
* Take part in real-life activities that show how new information is generated by using the scientific method.
* Become aware of and use technology to learn new information about fitness, health, and wellness and learn to discern fact from fiction.
* Use the web and the unique web icon feature to connect to relevant and expanded content for essential topics in the student web resource.
* Use other features such as fitness quotes, consumer corner, Fit Facts, and special exercise features (including exercise and self-assessment videos) that promote higher-order learning.
* Use the chapter-ending review questions to test their understanding of the concepts and use critical thinking and project assignments to meet educational standards, including college and career readiness standards.

Made in the USA.

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Chapter One: Introduction to Wellness, Fitness, and Lifestyle Management

Introduction to Wellness, Fitness, and
Lifestyle Management Chapter One Wellness= optimal health an vitality, encompassing all the dimensions of well being Health= the overall condition of body or mind
and the presence or absence of illness or injury These can be determined/influenced by factors beyond your control such as: genes, age, gender, and family history. This is determined by the decisions you make about how you live. Examples are: eating sensibly, not smoking, and exercising Physical
Environmental The Dimensions of Wellness Intellectual- Challenging the minds, finding solutions, new experiences and challenges, always learning Physical- body’s condition, fitness level, and
the ability to care for yourself Emotional- Ability to understand and deal with your feelings. Spiritual- to have a set of beliefs, principles, or values that give meaning and purpose to ones’ life. Interpersonal- the ability to develop an
maintain relationships with others Environmental- livability of your surroundings. Physical Fitness- physical attributes that allow the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort.
Avoiding a sedentary lifestyle Behaviors that Contribute to Wellness What are some benefits of being physically active? Increased endurance, strength, and flexibility
More energy
Improved ability to fall asleep and sleep well
Reduced risk of becoming obese
Reduced risk of falls and fractures Maintain a Healthy Body Weight Choose a Healthy Diet Manage stress Effectively Provides necessary nutrients and energy without providing too much substances that are linked to diseases. This requires lifelong commitment to regular exercise, a healthy diet, and good stress management. Poor stress management can lead to less efficient functioning of the immune system. Being Physically Active Take Other Steps Toward Wellness Protect Yourself From Disease and Injury Developing meaningful relationships
Planning for successful aging Preventing Disease
Making good decisions in life Take a look at your current health habits
Choose a Target Behavior
Behavior that is selected to change
Learn about your target behavior
Find Help Steps to Changing Your Health Examine the Pros and Cons of Change
What are the short and long term benefits?
Boosting self confidence
Self Efficacy
Locus of Control
Finding role models/support
Identify and Overcame Barriers to Change Motivational Change Precontemplation
Termination The Stages of Change Precontemplation- ‘Don’t have a problem’ Do not intend to change their behavior. Contemplation- Know they have problem and intend to take action within 6 months Preparation- Planning to take action within a month or already have started small changes. Action-they are modifying their behavior Maintenance-They have maintained their new, healthier lifestyle for at least 6 months. Termination- no longer trying to change Before Starting A change, If you want it to
be successful a personalized plan should be established Write it down Keep a record of your target behavior and the circumstances surrounding it.
What the activity was
When and Where It Happened
What you were doing
How you felt at that time First Step: Monitor Your Behavior Note all of the connections and patterns between your data.
Think about your feelings during different times of the day and how they affect what you are trying to change. Second Step: Analyze the Data and Identify Patterns Specific-state your objectives. ‘Eat 2 cups of fruit every day.
Measurable- Give your goals a number. Measure it time, distance, or some other amount.
Attainable- Set goals withing your physical limits
Realistic- make sure they are reachable and realistic
Time- Give a specific frame of time you want to accomplish your goals in. Step Three: Set ‘SMART’ Goals Get what you need
Modify your environment
Control Related Habits
Reward Yourself
Involve the People around you
Plan for challenges Step Four: Devise a Plan
of Action Make a contract that makes you commit to your word. This can result in a higher chance of follow through.
This should include: the date you will start, the steps you will take to measure your progress, the strategies you plan to use to promote change, and the date you expect to reach your final goal. Step Five: Make a
Personal Contract Procrastinating- break your plan into smaller steps so you can accomplish one day at a time.
Rationalizing- Your making excuses
Blaming- blaming others for your own failures. Negative Aspects Ignoring these are bad!!

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Volunteer Human Health Project

Volunteer Human Health Project

Volunteering is rewarding and appealing. You not only gain valuable experience but also help us extend HHP’s impact and fulfill our mission.

We are a volunteer run organization. You can help us grow and prosper by sharing your talents. Share your professional skills, keep old skills from getting rusty or try something new.

For volunteer opportunities with Human Health Project, please visit VolunteerMatch.

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Fit and Well text chapter notes

Fit and Well text chapter notes

This is not the complete outline for the textbook, but is a compilation of things I especially noticed with a few notes of my own mixed in.

Chapter 1

In the definition of Wellness, they include not only Physical, Emotional and Intellectual wellness, but also Environmental, or Planetary, Wellness

a.Environmental, or planetary, wellness reflects the fact that personal health depends on the health of the planet.

b.Wellness requires learning about and protecting yourself from environmental hazards such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution, and violence.

A hundred years ago common infectious diseases and poor environmental conditions were what shortened people’s lives. Our life expectancy has increased, due to medical advances and improved environmental conditions, but chronic diseases have emerged as the major threat to health, and the three leading causes of death in the United States today are heart disease, cancer, and stroke, all of which are to a large degree preventable. The best treatment for these chronic diseases is prevention, especially better fitness.


From Red Cross first aid, the basic ways to identify a stroke:

To care for a victim of stroke, think FAST.

Face – weakness on one side of the face

Arm – weakness or numbness in one arm

Speech – slurred speech or trouble speaking

Time – If they have these symptoms, it’s time to summon EMS personnel (call 911) if any of the above are seen and note the time the signs and symptoms began. There are drugs, which if given promptly, can reverse the effects of some strokes.


The keys to making change include:

    1.Examining Your Current Health Habits.

    An observation from a friend or family member or a landmark event such as the death of someone close to you can get you thinking about behavior change.

    2.Choosing a Target Behavior

    (just one behavior at a time, not quitting smoking while trying to lose weight).

    4.Find Outside Help as needed.

    Some challenging target behaviors, such as binge eating/drinking, addiction or depression may require outside help.

De Anza offers lots of help, see: and

You can start by Enhancing Your Readiness to Change

Identify your current stage in the transtheoretical stages of change model.

    1.Precontemplation: No intention of changing behavior.
    2.Contemplation: Intending to take action within 6 months.
    3.Preparation: Planning to take action within a month.
    4.Action: Outwardly changing behavior.
    5. Maintenance: Successful behavior change for 6 months or more.
    6.Termination: whew! But you need to plan ahead for potential lapses, either to prevent them or learn enough from them that you can be successful the next try.

A well-developed plan sets goals, anticipates problems, and includes rewards.

1.Monitor Your Behavior and Gather Data

Keep careful records of the behavior you want to change.

2.Analyze the Data and Identify Patterns

What events or times trigger the unhealthy behavior?

3.Set Realistic, Specific Goals

Break the ultimate goal down to a few small steps.

4.Devise a Strategy or Plan of Action

Develop techniques that will support your daily efforts at behavior change. Ask others what tricks worked when they quit smoking.

a.Obtain Information and Supplies

Identify resources, such as books, courses or clubs, that can help you practice the new behavior.

b.Modify Your Environment

Avoid the cues that trigger the unhealthy behavior and create cues that trigger the new behavior.

c.Reward Yourself

Plan rewards for reaching sub goals in your plan.

d.Involve the People Around You

Tell family, friends, classmates about your plan and ask for their support. Just saying it out loud in public can help make you stick with it.

e.Plan Ahead for Challenging Situations

Identify the people or situations that could derail your plan and develop coping mechanisms.

5.Make a Personal Contract

A serious personal contract can motivate you to follow through on your plan.

(I have been proud to accept the last cigarette pack from students of mine who smoked.)

The text continues with a Sample Behavior Change Plan, Staying with It, and the advice that you consider your wellness a lifelong goal, and continue to be informed and assess and improve your health behaviors.

Chapter 2

The text stresses that people of all ages can get benefits from exercise and physical activity.

More physical activity equals more benefits. (45 to 60 or more minutes per day of physical activity for people who need to lose weight and maintain weight loss)

You should include a moderate amount of physical activity on most days of the week. In the ‘how much is enough’ section it says that any amount of extra activity is healthier.

Progressive overload is the principle that when the amount of exercise is progressively increased, your fitness continues to improve. Your body will adapt to exercise by improving its function. Do more and fitness will improve more. Too little may improve your health but not your fitness. Too much and you can get injured.

The FITT principle spells out the four dimensions of the amount of overload needed:

Frequency: how often (regular rather than too much only occasionally)

Intensity: how hard,

…Different experts have different opinions about the appropriate intensity (moderate vs. high) and duration (continuous vs. intermittent) of exercise, but they all agree that low intensity, while better than a sedentary lifestyle, won’t improve physical fitness. They also agree that too much overload can cause injuries and even immune system problems.

Time: how long, (for cardiorespiratory endurance (CRE) exercise, 20 minutes to an hour is recommended, in one session a day or even in multiple periods of ten minutes at a time.

and Type: the type of activity. (Strength training at least two days a week, cardiorespiratory-endurance (CRE) for most people 3 to 5 days a week amd moderate -intensity 5 or more days a week.)

Chapter 2 then discusses health related components of physical fitness, Cardiorespiratory Endurance (CRE) , Muscular Strength, Muscular Endurance, Flexibility, Body Composition, and Skill-Related Components of Fitnesss, such as speed, power, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time.

It covers various other training principles, such as

specificity (to be a better swimmer you must swim).

The benefits of fitness are reversible. When you stop exercising, up to 50 percent of fitness improvements are lost within only 2 months.


Individual Differences / Limits on Adaptability

1.There are large differences in our ability to improve fitness and perform skills.

2.Some of our ability is genetically predetermined, but for the average individual, adaptability is enough to achieve fitness goals.

3.Physical training improves fitness regardless of heredity


There is a section on Designing Your Own Exercise Program, assessing your current level of fitness , setting goals and choosing activities for a balanced program.


No time to get fit? See: Sneaking exercise for alternative, new, fun ideas for activity ways to get in a little more activity without actually spending more time. (Some of these were invented by my students!)


Here is a summary of the Guidelines for Training:

1.Train the way you want your body to change. Exercise according to what you want to accomplish: for greater strength, lift weights; for more flexibility, stretch. To be a better swimmer, swim.

2.Train regularly. Consistency is the key to improving fitness.

3.Get in shape gradually. Increase duration and frequency before increasing intensity. Progressing gradually will help you avoid injury and overtraining. Overdo any new program, whether it be trying multiple laps of butterfly when you are first trying to learn it, or getting carried away with new abs exercises and you will cause pain, possibly injuries and almost guarantee that you will want to stop working.

4.Warm up before exercise and cool down afterward. Warming up and stretching helps the body adjust to exercise and decreases the likelihood of injury.

5.Cooling down restores circulation to its normal level, back from your muscles to your heart and brain so you won’t feel faint.

6.Exercise safely. Never swim alone. Walk or run with partners. Stay out of the way of cars. Use good-quality equipment and protective gear. Don’t exercise outdoors during a smog alert. Don’t jog right next to a stop and go roadway with smog spewing vehicles.

7.Listen to your body. ‘No pain, no gain’ is balderdash. Although you should maintain a structured, consistent workout program, dont exercise if it doesnt feel right. (But if your body always says to rest, you won’t make progress.)

8.Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts. Some days train very intensely and other days train more lightly. Increase intensity no more than 10% a week.

9.Try training with a partner. If someone is expecting you to get out of bed, put down that novel, or turn off the TV and go for a walk, you might be more committed.

10.Train your mind. Be committed, disciplined, patient, and positive about yourself and your goals.

11. Feed your body those carbs it needs.

12. Add variety and have fun. Few people can just swim laps by themselves in the same pool week after week. See: Sneaking exercise for alternative, new, fun ideas for activity.

Some suggestions from De Anza swim class students at Sneaking exercise

‘Chase squirrels with your dog, it’s surprisingly fun. The average urban park squirrel could use more exercise, so it’s good for all of you. Alas, people look at you funny if you don’t have a dog.

Walk your neighbor’s dog, especially if she’s cute. Tell her it’s a homework assignment from your class.

Hang a picture of your boss at work and throw darts at it. Have competitions with other employees.’

Tease big guys was the original entry. Then students thought of more along the same line. They are, of course, not all recommended.

‘Tease really big guys hot girlfriends.

While on a walk, tease the neighbor’s dog so it will chase after you.

Tell strangers who smoke to stop smoking. If they look angry, RUN.

Flirt with the daughter of a possessive, overly-protective big game hunter or professional wrestler.

Annoy your little brother or sister until they get so angry they want to slap you and make them chase after you.

Swat at a bee hive.

Hike up the mountain with your skis instead of buying a lift ticket’

One student winter quarter 2004 came up with these three new ideas:

    ‘Kiss girls then make them chase you.
    Ring the doorbell of your neighbor and sprint away. After a couple of times he’ll chase you and you get a bonus workout.
    Hide dogsy treats in your clothes and make your dog chase you.’

13.Track your progress. Time yourself regularly and see how much faster you are getting. Try longer swims and see how much more endurance you have.

14. Keep your exercise program in perspective. Don’t neglect the rest of your life. The text warns that training should not consume all of your time and energy.

Chapter 3: Cardiorespiratory Endurance

The text says that after reading this chapter, you should be able to:

‘·Describe how the body produces the energy it needs for exercise.

·List the major effects and benefits of cardiorespiratory endurance exercise.

·Explain how cardiorespiratory endurance is measured and assessed.

·Describe how frequency, intensity, time (duration), and type of exercise affect the development of cardiorespiratory endurance.

·Explain the best ways to prevent and treat common exercise injuries. ‘

I’m not going to try to outline the whole chapter here.

I did note the section on ‘exercise and the mind’ on page 68. Regular physical activity has these effects:

reduced anxiety, reduced depression and improved mood, improved sleep, reduced stress, enhanced self-esteem, self confidence and self-efficacy, enhanced creativity and intellectual functioning, improved work productivity, and increased opportunities for social interaction.

Exercise releases endorphins, which not only make you feel good while you are exercising, the euphoria many people seek through exercise, they also may suppress fatigue and decrease pain. It gives you an outlet for stress, anger and hostility.

This chapter is the place to find the chart with your target heart rate zone and the one mile / 1 1/2 mile run/walk to test your cardiorespiratory capacity and endurance.

Fluid intake: ‘drink at least two cups (16 ounces) of fluid 2 hours before exercise and then drink enough during exercise to match fluid loss through sweating. Drink at least 1 cup of fluid for every 20-30 minutes of exercise, more in hot weather or if you sweat heavily.’ Drink lots even when you are swimming and don’t notice how much you sweat. Dehydration increases body temperature and decreases sweat rate, plasma volume, cardiac output, maximal oxygen consumption, exercise capacity, muscular strength, and stores of liver glycogen.

Heat exhaustion symptoms include headache; cool, moist, pale, or ashen skin; nausea, exhaustion, faintness, profuse sweating , and, in some cases psychological disorientation; core body temperature may be normal or slightly elevated.

Heat exhaustion can progress quickly to heat stroke, which is a major medical emergency involving the failure of the brains temperature regulatory center. Symptoms include red, hot skin; rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; convulsions and progressive loss of consciousness. Your temperature can hit 105 degrees.

Remove victim from hot environment

Give small amounts of cool water to conscious victim

Have victim lie down in a cool or shady area and elevate legs if possible

Loosen or remove clothing

Apply cool, wet towels or cold packs to wrists, armpits, groin, and legs

Fan victim

Factors Affecting Normal Body Temperature

Air temperature




Intensity of activity

Bodys ability to adapt (physical fitness level)

Those at Greatest Risk for Cold Exposure

Young children and elderly

Those without adequate equipment, clothing, or training for cold environment

Those with health problems

Those using illicit drugs, medications, or alcohol

Signs and Symptoms of Hypothermia (when your core body temp is low)

Cool skin Shivering

later stages:


Decreasing level of consciousness

Poor coordination Difficulty speaking

Rigid posture

Summon more advanced medical personnel

Reassure victim

Handle victim gently

Remove victim from cold environment

Have victim stop all activity and rest

Remove wet clothing

Place victim in dry blankets or clothing and wrap in plastic if available

Protect from any further heat loss


The RICE definition mentioned in the text is not used by the Red Cross anymore. Now we say:

Treatment for closed soft tissue injuries

(RICE) Rest to allow clots to form. Do not move or straighten the area


Cold: apply plastic bag of ice (with a thin barrier between the ice and skin) 20 minutes every 2-4 hours (sometimes more often)

Elevate above heart level unless it causes more pain


Learn more about first aid in Lifeguard Training offered spring quarter and/or Health 57A the First Aid in the Workplace, Community and Wilderness class offered at De Anza almost every quarter.


Aspirin can relieve inflammation and it can increase bleeding, for example, internal bleeding (bruising).


Chapter Four is the weight training chapter including exercises you can do at home without expensive equipment.

Anyone can benefit from training with weights to build strength and endurance. The more muscle mass you have the higher metabolic rate you have. You can keep burning calories for hours after a training session.

Women might not be able to lift as much as men, but they have the same capacity to gain strenght as men. Women will not develop big muscles like men do unless they train intensely for many years or take dangerous anabolic steroids.


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Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness

Dr. Werner W.K. Hoeger is a full-time professor and director of the Human Performance Laboratory at Boise State University. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and is the recipient of the first ever 2004 Presidential Award for Research and Scholarship in the College of Education at Boise State University. Dr. Hoeger uses his knowledge and experiences to write engaging, informative books that thoroughly address today’s fitness and wellness issues in a format accessible to students. He has written several textbooks for Thomson Wadsworth, including LIFETIME PHYSICAL FITNESS AND WELLNESS, Ninth Edition; FITNESS AND WELLNESS, Seventh Edition; PRINCIPLES AND LABS FOR FITNESS AND WELLNESS, Eighth Edition; PRINCIPLES AND LABS FOR PHYSICAL FITNESS, Fifth Edition; WELLNESS: GUIDELINES FOR A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE, Fourth Edition; and WATER AEROBICS FOR FITNESS AND WELLNESS, Third Edition (with Terry-Ann Spitzer Gibson). He was the first author to write a college fitness textbook that incorporated the ‘wellness’ concept and introduced the principle that to truly improve fitness, health, and achieve wellness, a person needed to go beyond the basic health-related components of physical fitness. As an innovator in the field, Dr. Hoeger has developed many fitness and wellness assessment tools, including fitness tests such as the modified sit and reach, total body rotation, shoulder rotation, muscular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and soda pop coordination tests. Proving that he ‘practices what he preaches,’ at 48, he was the oldest male competitor in the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah. He raced in the sport of luge along with his 17-year-old son Christopher. This was the first time in Winter Olympics history that father and son competed in the same event.

Sharon A. Hoeger is Vice President of Fitness & Wellness, Inc. in Boise, Idaho and holds a bachelor’s degree in computer science from Brigham Young University. As co-author of PRINCIPLES AND LABS FOR PHYSICAL FITNESS, 10th Edition and four other Cengage texts, Ms. Hoeger is responsible for researching the most current scientific information for each revision, as well as developing the interactive software that accompanies all of the Hoeger fitness and wellness textbooks–innovations that have set the standard for fitness and wellness software today. The Hoeger husband-and-wife team has been jogging and strength training together for more than 35 years!

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