Chapter 1 Physical Fitness and Wellness – Health And Exercise Science 221 with Jambois at University of South Carolina – All Campuses – StudyBlue

StudyBlue printing of Chapter 1 Physical Fitness and Wellness html, body, div, span, applet, object, iframe, h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, p, blockquote, pre, a, abbr, acronym, address, big, cite, code, del, dfn, em, font, img, ins, kbd, q, s, samp, small, strike, strong, sub, sup, tt, var, b, u, i, center, fieldset, form, label, legend, table, caption, tbody, tfoot, thead, tr, th, td { margin: 0; padding: 0; border: 0; outline: 0; font-size: 100%; background: transparent; } body { line-height: 1; } blockquote, q { quotes: none; } blockquote:before, blockquote:after, q:before, q:after { content: ”; content: none; } /* remember to define focus styles! */ :focus { outline: 0; } /* remember to highlight inserts somehow! */ ins { text-decoration: none; } del { text-decoration: line-through; } /* tables still need ‘cellspacing=’0” in the markup */ table { border-collapse: collapse; border-spacing: 0; } /* end RESET */ .header { min-width:800px; } .logo { padding:6px 20px 2px 20px; margin:0; font-size:25px; font-weight:bold; color:#808285; position:relative; border-bottom: 1px solid #c5c5c5; } .logo-blue { color:#70adc4; } .logo-desc { font-weight:normal; font-size:19px; color:#cccccc; margin-top:50px; position:absolute; display: none; } .back-button { position:absolute; top:20px; right:20px; font-size:13px; line-height:25px; color:rgb(0,175,225); font-weight:normal; } .back-button a { color:rgb(0,175,225); } .instructions { padding:0; margin:0; width:100%; position:relative; color:rgb(100,100,100); } .step-holder { border-left:1px solid #ededed; margin-left:20px; } .steps { padding:15px 0; float:left; width:24%; border-right:1px solid #ededed; text-align:center; } .steps-01 { } .steps-02 { } .steps-03 { } .steps-04 { } .label { padding:5px 10px; } .print-button { } .print-button a { background-color:rgb(0,175,225); color:white; line-height: 19px; padding:9px 8px 5px 30px; font-size:14px; text-decoration:none; background-image: url(images/printer.png); background-repeat: no-repeat; background-position: 7px 50%; -moz-border-radius: 5px; -webkit-border-radius: 5px; } .print-button a:hover { background-color:black; } .theNote .content { width: 8.0in !important; margin: 5px auto; padding:20px; background-color:white; } .theNote .header { border-bottom: 1px dashed #C8C8C8; font-size: 17px; padding: 0 0 10px; line-height: 19px; color: #00ADE1; min-width:500px; } .theNote .body { font-size: 14px; line-height: 19px; padding: 10px 0; } .theNote{ padding:6px 0; clear:both; background-color: rgb(200,200,200); } .theNote h3{ color: rgb(100,100,100); } .theNote h1, .theNote h3{ background-color:white; padding:2px 20px; width:8.0in !important; margin: 0 auto; font-size: 15px; } .theNote h1{ padding-top: 10px; font-size: 15px; } .theNote h1:first-child{ font-size: 20px; } .theNote h3 { font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; } #options { border: 3px double #ccc; padding: 5px 12px; margin: 10px 50px 10px 20px; float: left; } #info { border-top: 1px solid #ccc; padding-top: 5px; font-style: italic; } li { margin: 5px 10px 5px 25px; } ul li { list-style: disc; } ol li { list-style: decimal; } img { border: 0; } table { clear: both; width: 100%; border: 1px solid #c5c5c5; border-width: 1px 0; margin: 0; page-break-after: always; } table#page { page-break-after: auto; } td { text-align: center; font-size: 12px; border-bottom: 1px dashed #c5c5c5; height: 1.75in; width: 50%; padding-left: 15px; } .leftside { border-right: 1px solid #cccccc; padding: 0 15px 0 0; } .bottom td { border-bottom: none; } .clearfix { clear:both; line-height:1px; height:1px; } img { max-width:80%; max-height:150px; margin:20px; } @media print {.header { display: none; } .content .header{ display:inherit; } table { border: 1px dashed #bbb; border-width: 1px 0; } .theNote{ background-color:white; } } null In the United States, physical inactivity is the second greatest threat to public health and has been termed Sedentary Death Syndrome. The number one threat is tobacco use-the largest cause of preventable deaths. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Healthy life expectancy is obtained by subtracting the years of ill health from total life expectancy. The US ranked 24th with an HLE of 70 years and Japan at number one with an HLE of 74.5 years. Factors that may account for this unexpected finding: The extremely poor health of some groups, such as Native Americans, rural African Americans, and the inner-city poor. Their health status is more characteristic of poor developing nations rather tahn a rich industrialized country. The epidemic of human immunodefiency virus (HIV), which causes more deaths and disability in the United States than in other developed nations. The high incidence of tobacco use. The high incidence of coronary heart disease. Fairly high levels of violence, notably homicides compared with other developed countries. Leading Health Problems in the US Cardiovascular disease Cancer Stroke Chronic Lowere Respiratory Accidents According to the American Heart Association, 79.4 million people in the United States are afflicted with diseases of the cardiovascular system, including 72 million with hypertension and 15.8 million with coronary heart disease. About 1.2 million people have heart attacks each year, and nearly 325,000 of them die as a result. The estimated cost of heart and blood vessel disease in 2007 exceeded 431 billion. Almost 23 percent of all deaths in the US are attributable to cancer. More than 559, 650 people died from cancer in 2007, and an estimated 1,444,920 new cases were reported the same year. The main contributor to the increase in the incidence of cancer during the last 5 decades is lung cancer, of which 87 percent is caused by tobacco use. Another 33 percent of deaths are related to nutrition, physical inactivity, excessive body weight, and other faulty lifestyle habits. 80 percent of all human cancer is preventable through positive lifestyle behaivors. Accidents are the fourth leading cause of death. Fatal accidents are often related to abusing drugs and not wearing seat belts. Accidents do not just happen. We cause accidents, and we are victims of accidents. Alcohol use is the number one cause of all accidents. About half of accidental death and suicides in the US are alcohol related. Alcohol intoxication is the leading cause of fatal automobile accidents. Lifestyle as a Health Problem More than half of the people who die in this country each year die because of what they do. Only 16 percent is related to genetic factors. Many physical education programs do not emphasize the skills necessary for youth to maintain a high level of fitness and health throughout life. Physical Activity and Exercise defined Physical activity is bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles. Exercise is a type of physical activity that requires planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness. Moderate physical activity had been defines as any activity that requires an energy expenditure of 150 calories per day, or 1,000 calories per week. A pedometer is a small mechanical device that senses vertical body motion and counts footsteps. In the United States, men typically take about 6,000 steps per day, in comparison with women, who take about 5,300 steps. The general recommendations for adults is 10,000 steps per day. Wellness Physical activity alone is not always sufficent to lower the risk for disease and ensure better health. Offsetting these good habits, might be risk factors, including high blood pressure, smoking, excessive stress, drinking too much alcohol, and eating too many foods high in saturated fat. Physical Wellnes Good physical fitness and confidence in your personal ability to take care of health problems Emotional Wellness The ability to understand your own feeling, accept your limitations, and achieve emotional stability Mental Wellness Implies that you can apply the things you have learned, create opportunities to learn more, and engage your mind in lively interaction with the world around you. Social Wellness Social wellness, with its accompanying positive self-image, endows you with the ease and confidence to be outgoing, friendly, and affectionate towards others. Social wellness involves a concern for oneself and also an interest in humanity and the environment as a whole. Occupational Wellness The ability to perform your job skillfully and effectively under conditions that provide personal and team satisfaction and adequately reward each individual. Spirtual Wellness Provides a unifying power that integrates all dimensions of wellness. Basic characteristics of spiritual people include a sense of meaning and direction in life and a relationship to a higher being. Prayer is a signpost of our spirituality, at the core of most spiritual experiences. It is communication with a higher power. At least 200 studies have been conducted on the effects of prayer on health. About 2/3’s of these studies have linked prayer to positive health outcomes-as long as these prayers are offered with sincerity, humility, love, empathy, and compassion. Altruism, a key attribute of spiritual people, seems to enhance health and longevity. Studies indicate that people who regularly volunteer live longer. Research has found that health benefits of altruism are so powerful that doing good for oneself, especially for the immune system. Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity Because of participation in wellness programs, cardiovascular mortality rates dropped. The decline began in about 1963, and between 1960 and 200 the incidence of cardiovascular disease dropped by 26 percent. The first major study in this area was conducted amoung 16,936 Harvard alumni linking physical activity habits and mortality rates. The largest decrease in cardiovascular deaths was observed among alumni who used more than 2,000 calories per week through physical activity. The study revealed a graded and consistent inverse relationship between physical activity levels and mortality, regardless of age and other risk factors. The higher the level of physical activity, the longer the lifespan. The death rate for least fit men was 3.4 times higher than than of the most fit men. For the least fit women, the death rate was 4.6 times higher than that of most-fit women. This study also reported a greatly reduced rate of premature death, even at moderate fitness levels that most adults can achieve easily. A five year follow-up study on fitness and mortality found a substantial (44%) reduction in mortality risk when people abandones a sedentary lifestyle and became moderately fit. The lowes death rate was found in people who were fit at the start of the study and remained fit; the highest death rate was found in men who were unfit at the beginning of the study and remained unfit. Vigourous activity has been shown to provide the est improvements in aerobic capacity, coronary heart disease risk reduction, and overall cardiovascular health. Vigourous excercie should be reserved for healthly individuals who have been cleared to do so and who have been participating regularly in at leat moderate intensity activities. Types of Physical Fitness Physical fitness is classified in to health-related, skill-related, and physiological fitness. Heath related fitness is related to the ability to perform activities of daily living without undue fatigue and is conducive to a low risk of premature hypokinetic diseases. Skill-related fitness components consist of agility, balance, coordination, reaction time, speed, and power. Physiological fitness is a term used primarily in the field of medicine in reference to biological systems that are affected by physical activity and the roll the latter plays in preventing disease. The components of physiological fitness are metabolic fitness, morphological fitness, and bone intregity.

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The Business Case for a Healthier Community

What we are

RSPH is an independent, multi-disciplinary charity dedicated to the improvement of the public’s health and wellbeing.

Formed in October 2008 with the merger of the Royal Society of Health and the Royal Institute of Public Health, we help inform policy and practice, working to educate, empower and support communities and individuals to live healthily.

Our vision is that everyone has the opportunity to optimise their health and wellbeing.

Public health encompasses all aspects of health protection and health promotion and this is reflected throughout our projects, policy work, reports and campaigns.

  • Membership:We have a membership of over 6,000 public health professionals encompassing a wide range of sectors and roles including health promotion, medicine, environmental health and food safety trainers
  • Qualifications:Our network of centres enable over 70,000 people each year to achieve qualifications in subjects as diverse as food hygiene, health and safety, behaviour change, health improvement and nutrition.
  • Conferences and training: We offer a wide range of conferences, seminars, events and training in water hygiene, infection control, mental wellbeing and occupational medicine and more
  • Accreditation: We provide an accreditation service for public health training programmes and campaigns

Find out more about some of the areas in which we work:

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a woman’s own fitness and wellness

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Lifetime Physical Fitness and Wellness: A Personalized Program

Dr. Werner W.K. Hoeger Professor Emeritus in the Department of Kinesiology at Boise State University, and fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and the Research Consortium of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. The 2004 recipient of the Presidential Award for Research and Scholarship in the College of Education at Boise State University, Dr. Hoeger continues to research and lecture on exercise physiology, physical fitness, and wellness. In addition to PRINCIPLES AND LABS FOR PHYSICAL FITNESS, Dr. Hoeger has published several Cengage Learning texts, including Fitness and Wellness, Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness, Lifetime Physical Fitness and Wellness, Wellness: Guidelines for a Healthy Lifestyle, and Water Aerobics for Fitness and Wellness (with Terry-Ann Spitzer Gibson). Dr. Hoeger is a former luge runner and Winter Olympian, and renowned fitness and wellness innovator. He developed many popular fitness assessment tools in use today, such as the modified sit and reach, total body rotation, shoulder rotation, muscular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and soda pop coordination tests.

Sharon A. Hoeger is Vice President of Fitness & Wellness, Inc. in Boise, Idaho and holds a bachelor’s degree in computer science from Brigham Young University. As co-author of PRINCIPLES AND LABS FOR PHYSICAL FITNESS, 10th Edition and four other Cengage texts, Ms. Hoeger is responsible for researching the most current scientific information for each revision, as well as developing the interactive software that accompanies all of the Hoeger fitness and wellness textbooks–innovations that have set the standard for fitness and wellness software today. The Hoeger husband-and-wife team has been jogging and strength training together for more than 35 years!

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Why Meditate? | Sahaja Yoga Meditation in London, UK

You don’t have to spend years living in the mountains to achieve enlightenment. You don’t have to give up anything or spend weeks in silence. You don’t have to learn mantras or wear special clothes or even try to clear your mind. With Sahaja Yoga Meditation we generally sit on chairs to achieve Yoga, effortlessly & spontaneously. As such no exercises (Asanas) are required, nor Mat or special clothing. The meditation simply happens spontaneously. The classes are easy and fun, and as long as you keep up your daily ten minutes of meditation you find you are able to achieve a deep and peaceful meditation on a regular basis.

Sahaja Yoga Meditation takes you into the state of ‘thoughtless awareness’.

True meditation is a state of deep peace where the mind is absolutely calm and silent, yet completely alert – a state of being known as ‘thoughtless awareness’. Throughout history, mystics, saints and prophets have spoken of this experience. They removed themselves from society, sought ways to cleanse themselves of human troubles and devoted their lives to achieving their spiritual ascent. Their aim was to achieve ‘self realisation’ – a state of being where the human spirit becomes one with the Divine, where fear and anger are replaced with joy, contentment, inner balance and peace.

Sahaja Yoga meditation delivers – ‘mental silence’, to meditators across London.

Through Sahaja Yoga, the experience of ‘mental silence’ is now possible for every human being, effortlessly. Meditation helps you evolve. Meditation raises resistance to stress. More meditation, less conflict. Pop along to one of the Free Meditation London classes

Sahaja Yoga is the simplest way to obtain natural wellbeing.

Even after the first experience of Sahaja Yoga, you can begin to experience a widespread feeling of relaxation and peace; and after a few moments of practice you can begin to establish a continuous state of wellbeing and serenity. Meditation in London is not only possible, it is exceptional.

Sahaja Yoga is free

There is never any charge for Sahaja Yoga instruction or for receiving one’s self realisation which is the birthright of every human being. This philosophy of Sahaja Yoga is based on the fact that it is not possible to pay for what already exists inside us and merely needs to be awakened. We can pay for renting a room, for printing material, but what can we pay for awakening our own true nature? So you can learn to Meditate in London for free at one of the many Free Meditation London classes

Sahaja Yoga is a method of spontaneous meditation

Everything happens in a spontaneous way inside you, just like a plant naturally grows from a seed. Meditation is a state of being in which we are in thoughtless awareness: perfectly aware and alert, but free from thoughts. This state of peace of mind can be reached thanks to the Sahaja Yoga method in a simple and natural way. It is not necessary to take difficult physical positions, or abandon our daily life or to read complicated philosophical studies. Being able to Meditate in London is now a daily reality for many.

Sahaja Yoga helps you to make your life more joyful

As you begin to meditate, spontaneously, tensions accumulated in daily life are released. As our inner state re-balances, we may feel a renewed energy for life. Innate virtues and inner qualities may become nourished. These experiences of enhanced self knowledge allow us to understand ourselves more clearly. As we become clearer, we may also gain a better understanding of the plight of others and thereby naturally become more compassionate and patient. Many meditate in London together to benefit from the collective effect of doing it in a wider community.

Sahaja Yoga helps you face and dissolve anger, fear, guilt and worry.

Many of us may have accumulated unhelpful emotions like anger, fear, guilt and worry, which can hamper our enjoyment of life here in London. It can be difficult to shake off these unhelpful feelings which can ‘hold us down’. Sahaja Yoga equips us to gradually attend on these states of being, aiding us in our daily journey, to dissolve and release these built up inner conditions. As more and more discover how easy it can be to meditate in London, it has a collective positive effect on everyone.

Sahaja Yoga allows you to acquire a deep knowledge of yourself.

Sahaja Yoga allows you to obtain a pure knowledge of the self, not veiled by deluding ideals and false conditionings. The idea is that we get to live in a clearer reality, rather then the worldview created by the ego. Inner beauty should blossom just like a flower manifesting all its fragrance, hopefully leading to a state where we are all in better harmony with ourselves and the world. Learn to Meditate in London and tap into your own own serenity, balance and silence.

London is a great City to practice meditation in

If you are already living in London, the only place you need to retreat to is that place of mental silence within yourself, no need to travel any further then the Sahasrara Chakra at the crown of the head.

We wish you a fruitful journey in the exploration of your inner self!

There are around 16 weekly meetings across London. Free London Meditation Meetings

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